Making Paks Safe
The Energy Future of Hungary

isa books

 

 

 

 

International Society of Automation (ISA)

Being the editor of the ISA handbook (introduction by Edward Teller) and being an energy-safety consultant, -after Fukushima –ISA asked me to review the safety of the nuclear industry:       3-Mile Island, Chernobil, Fukushima and others, including Paks, 2003

An Inherently Unsafe Industry

I spent 2 years reviewing the many accidents. After that, ISA published my conclusions in a book form.

 

In this lecture I will describe my Compromise Plans for Bős-Nagymaros and Paks and will also will describe my two inventions: the Underwater Nuclear Plant and the Reversible Fuel Cell (RFC)

Nuclear History

nuclear history

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1933, Leó Szilárd conceived the nuclear chain reaction and jointly with Enrico Fermi, patented the first nuclear reactor.

TODAY: Operating: 438, Under construction: 63, Planned: 150, Shut down: 138, Decommissioned: 17

AVERAGE AGE: 29 yrs, DESIGNED FOR: 30yrs.

GLOBAL PRODUCTION: 13.5% of electricity, 5% of total energy,

28 YEARS AFTER CHERNOBYL 32,000 ton cap is still under construction, area still evacuated, cost more than to build, cancer in the region: triple,

RUSATOM: Chernobyl →Paks

rusatom

RISKS: Meltdown (coolant lost), hydrogen explosion (no nitrogen)

Advantages:

    Less expensive, missile-proof

Disadvantages:

    Single (not dual!) containment

    No Nitrogen to protect against hydrogen explosions

WHY RUSATOM

gas-stream

  • HUNGARY:
  • Gas Consumption: 343 billion cubic feet (bfc),
  • Local production: 109 bfc, Import:

208 bfc

  • NOW:
  • Reverse Existing Flow:
  • Italy →Slovakia →Ukraine,
  • FUTURE:
  • Russian Plan (Southern Stream):

Under Black Sea → Bulgaria → Hungary→ Italy

  • EU: Azerbaijan →Turkey →Albania →Greece →Italy

PAKS SCHEDULE
Drive a 50 years old car?

paks schedule

PAKS: 40% of Electricity

EXISTING -4 UNITS:

AGE: 30 years, approved for 50 yrs!

Would you want to drive a 50 years old car?

WASTE: Püspökladány: near full, Bátaapáti not yet open,

High level: 2060 in Mecsek.

SAFETY: No cancer test in Tolna

EXPANSION -2 Units

AGE:for 60 years (does not operate anywhere).

SAFETY:

1) If external & internal electricity: meltdown results

2) Unprotected against cyber-terrorism

3) All safety automation can be overruled by operators

4) Supply of fuel from Russia, waste to Russia means:

           Hungarian electricity supply depends on Russia

 

economic concerns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMPROMISE PLAN FOR PAKS

 

1) Totally Safe, meltdown impossible!

2) Global patent royalties pay for Paks expansion

work by russia

  • WORK BY RUSSIA:
  • Construction exactly as contracted.
  • Supplies Fuel

Handles waste disposal

work by hungary

  • BY HUNGARY:
  • Sealing (like a nuclear submarine)
  • Flooding
  • Operation

Obtaining global patent 

DESIGN INCAPABLE OF MELTDOWN

 

  • Normal conditions (left)
  •  Containment is evacuated to thermally insulate the reactor, and safety valves are closed because the thermal expansion lifting rods are contracted.
  • Emergency (right):
  • Containment is flooded as soon as the safety valves are opened by the thermal expansion of the lifting rods. This automatically cools the reactor.
  • NEEDS NO ELECTRICITY ONLY THERMAL EXPANSION AND GRAVITY!
  • 1) Nothing can cause a meltdown!
    2) Global patent royalties pay for Paks expansion 

design incapable meltdown

 

 The Hydrocarbon- Nuclear Age

carbon dioxide variation

  • The „stone age” did not end, because we ran out of stone! It ended, because we found bronze

 

to be better! The „hydrocarbon-nuclear age” will not end,

 

  • because we run out of oil and uranium!
  • It will end, because we will learn that renewable energy is better!
  • Half of the Earth’s species are extinct,
  • Radioactivity in the air doubled,
  • Food chain is poisoned,
  • Global cancer rate more than doubled,
  • In 2013: 7 million died from pollution,
  • CO2 is highest in half million years,
  • ice caps are melting, seas are rising,
  • energy wars are starting
  • WE CAN NOT RULE NATURE,

BUT WE CAN DESTROY OUR OWN ENVIRONMENT

 

The  Coming Solar-Hydrogen Age

solar hydrogenBUT things are looking up!

  • Solar cell prices are down 5 fold,
  • 2 million homes in Texas already use wind energy only,
  • The town Nipton, in CA is going 100% green
  • 20% of Germany’s energy is

 

already green

 

  • WE KNOW WHAT TO DO!!!

DO NOT NEED WW3 FOR THE NEW   MARSHALL PLAN

Let Hungary Be A Leader

START IMMEDIATELY:

  • Geothermal Energy :
  • 2500 km3 water at > 100 ºC water
  • (Potential 166 TWh, Consumption: 35 TWH)
  • Lithium from Geothermal
  • Tesla battery project (~200-800 ppm)
  • Biomass:
  • Potential: 16 % of electricity production.
  • Safe Nuclear Reactor:
  • Prototype test:  Hungarian Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFK AEKI) 10 MW), Budapest research reactor.
  • Danube Compromise: 
  • Bős = 700 MW, Paks reactor 470 MW, (Slides) 

EU SUPPORTED RESEARCH:

  • Solar roof-tiles, solar windows: (Slides)
  • CO2 → Methanol
  • (Oláh Nóbel díj)
  • Reversible Fuel Cell (RFC): (Slides)

Solar Collector Designs

Solar Energy is Here!!

(China  has 95% of the market)

solar energy

 

Hungarian Insolation

1250 kWh/m2/yr (Sahara: 2000 kWh/m2/yr)


globar irradiation hungary

irradiation europe

 

photovoltaics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The New Marshall Plan

  • Moving from the Hydrocarbon-Nuclear Age
  • to the Solar-Hydrogen age
  • Hydrogen is safe, it fueled space exploration without a single accident for 50 years. It stores and transports solar energy the same way as does liquefied natural gas (LNG) today.

air products tanktrailer tubeshydrogen pump

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hungary: develop solar home

EU has no solar roof tile.

Hungary should develop and patent the solar roof tile, solar window, etc. At 25% collection efficiency, a home in Hungary needs 48 square meters of surface to meet its electricity consumption of 1000 kWh/month

DANUBE COMPROMISE PLAN

duna compromise

 

  • 1992 to 2014 = 22 YEARS
  • Slovakia got 2,600 GWhr electricity per year,
  • 50% of which is from the water that is Hungarian property.
  • At 17 cents/kWh, this depth is $4.86 billion.
  • (more than the yearly deficit).

 

  • COMPROMISE:
  • Hungary would forgive $4.86 billion Slovak debt.
  • Total production rises to : 4274 GWh and Slovakia’s share drops by only 2600-2174 = 426 GWh which is $94 million/yr
  • Strained relations improve
  • Hague Court ruling completely satisfied. 

MY REVERSIBLE FUEL CELL

(RFC = Elcetrolyser + Fuel Cell)

During the day, it makes Hydrogen

During the night it uses that hydrogen to make electricity

reversible fuel cell

Front page of India’s Largest Paper

(Report on my Lecture Tour about the RFC)

report lecture tour rfc

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